Patient Education

Turf Toe

Turf toe is a sprained joint in the big toe due to excessive upward bending. It is usually a sports injury that occurs as a result of jamming the toe…

Patient Education

Subungal Exotosis

Subungal exotosis is a bony projection, or bone spur, that forms underneath the big toenail. It usually occurs on the big toe as a result of injury or trauma such…

Patient Education

In-Toeing and Out-Toeing

In-toeing is when the feet turn inward instead of pointing straight ahead when walking or running. Out-toeing is when the feet point outward instead of straight ahead when walking or…

Patient Education

General Toe Deformities

Toe deformities such as hammertoes, claw toes, mallet toes, and overlapping and underlapping toes can be congenital, inherited, or develop over time as a result of an injury, recurring pressure,…

Patient Education

Overlapping and Underlapping Toes

Overlapping and underlapping toes occur when toes are out of position. The conditions can be congenital due to inheritance or the fetus’s in-utero position, or they can develop over time…

Patient Education

Hammertoe

Hammertoe occurs when the second, third, or fourth toe bends at the middle joint, often as a result of wearing ill-fitting shoes. Genetics, arthritis, and muscle imbalance can also cause…

Patient Education

Hallux Varus

Hallux varus is a deformity of the big toe joint that results in the big toe pointing outward, or away from the other toes, whereas a bunion would cause the…

Patient Education

Hallux Rigidus

Hallux rigidus is a degenerative arthritis affecting the joint of the big toe that eventually causes the toe to become rigid, or unmovable. Over time, the toe’s motion decreases due…

Patient Education

Hallux Limitus

Hallux limitus, an arthritic condition of the hallux, or big toe, involves stiffness in the joint at the base of the big toe. Abnormal alignment of the first metatarsal bone…

Patient Education

Enchondroma

Enchondromas develop in the bone underneath the toenail and are small, benign growths composed of cartilage. The tumors are composed of cartilage that forms in the bone and are usually…